Political and Economic Development of Uzbekistan after Independence 1991-2011 乌兹别克斯坦独立后的政治经济发展（1991-2011）
The Political and Economic Development of Uzbekistan After Independence (1991-2011) is divided into nine chapters, the main contents are: Chapter 1 “Establishing an Independent State” mainly introduces the brief history of the “Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic” one of the 15 Soviet republics in the Soviet Union. Chapter 2 “Natural resources and infrastructure” introduces Uzbekistan’s mineral resources and energy, climate change, water resources, and infrastructure such as transportation and pipelines. Chapter 3 “Political Development.” Based on the revision of the constitution, this chapter mainly reviews the political reform process of Uzbekistan after independence, including the relationship between the president and the prime minister, the parliament, the reform of the parliamentary system, and the development of political parties. Chapter 4 “Nation and Religion” mainly introduces the main ethnic groups in Uzbekistan, the management of ethnic affairs, conflicts between ethnic groups (including cross-border ethnic groups), basic religious information and religious management methods. Chapter 5 “Macroeconomic Development” mainly introduces three aspects: First, the reform of property rights, that is, the process of privatization. After the privatizations from (1992-1996), by the end of 1995, the non-state-owned economy accounted for 69% of GDP and became an important part of the national economy. Since then, the focus of ownership reform has shifted from privatization to the management of state-owned assets. The state regulates economic development by controlling strategic industries and key areas. The second is macroeconomic development. With the help of three main economic indicators such as GDP, inflation rate, and unemployment rate, we describe the development process and current status of Uzbekistan’s macroeconomics. As for the total economic volume (according to the data of the National Bureau of Statistics of Uzbekistan) between 1991 and 2011, the total GDP of Uzbekistan increased by 3.28 times at current prices and 1.9 times at constant values. In 2011, the total GDP of Uzbekistan was 77750.6 billion soums (about 45.318 billion US dollars). The third is the evaluation of Uzbekistan’s economic environment by major international institutions, including UNDP’s “Human Development Index”, the World Bank’s “Doing Business Index” and the American Heritage Foundation’s “Economic Freedom Index”. In general, well-known international institutions believe that the economic environment of Uzbekistan is relatively conservative and closed, with insufficient freedom. Chapter 6 “Financial and Fiscal Institutions”. After independence, Uzbekistan established a secondary banking system, and the current financial system consists of the central bank, commercial banks and non-financial institutions. Since the issuance of a local currency in 1994, the soum, has continuously depreciated against the US dollar. Although the currency was freely convertible under the current account in 2003, the gap between official and black market prices has grown. The state budget of Uzbekistan consists of two parts, the central budget and the local budget. In 2010, fiscal revenue and expenditure were basically flat, at about $8.6 billion. Uzbekistan adheres to the principle that the fiscal deficit should not exceed 1% of GDP. The current budget revenue mainly comes from taxation, accounting for more than 909/6, and the expenditure is mainly used in social fields such as education, medical care and social security, accounting for more than 609/6 of the total fiscal expenditure. Chapter 7 “People’s Livelihood Guarantee” focuses on the achievements of Uzbekistan in education, health and social security after independence. Uzbekistan always adheres to the principle of “social economy” and attaches great importance to the development of social undertakings and the protection of people’s livelihood. Like the “theme years” of the national development guideline, most of its contents are related to the people’s livelihood, such as family year, women’s year, healthy generation year, mother and child year, health year, charity and medical worker year, social security year Wait. Chapter 8 “Military and Defense” mainly introduces three aspects: first, the development of Uzbekistan’s military doctrine and military reform; second, the status quo of the armed forces; third, the status quo of foreign military cooperation with NATO and the Collective Security Treaty Organization. Chapter 9 “International Relations”. This chapter mainly introduces three contents: one is the basic principles of Uzbekistan’s foreign policy; the other is border demarcation and peripheral security. The third is foreign economic cooperation, including foreign trade, foreign debt and regional economic cooperation.