From “Democratic Island” to “Tulip Revolution”: A Study of Kyrgyzstan’s Political Transformation 从民主岛到郁金香革命”:吉尔吉斯斯坦政治转型研究
Since the mid-1970s, from southern Europe to Latin America, then to East Asia, and finally to Eastern Europe, there has been a wave of global significance. The wave of democratization reform, which Huntington called the “third wave”, opened up a comprehensive social transformation with institutional change as the core of the countries in the above-mentioned regions. Obviously, as far as the social transformation of the above-mentioned vast areas is concerned, the transformation of the former Soviet Union and eastern regions is the most striking. Among them, the political transformation in this region is particularly serious. The reason is that the former Soviet Union and Eastern countries are different from the countries in the other three regions. A change has taken place, that is, the nature of the state and social system has fundamentally changed, from socialism to capitalism. The political transformation of Kyrgyzstan, a newly independent country in the former Soviet Union and Central Asia, is an important part of the entire transformation process that took place in the above-mentioned broad macro-historical context. For a long time, the research on Central Asia by domestic and foreign academic circles has basically taken the region as the object, and there is a lack of in-depth and careful research on the specific situation of individual countries in the region. Taking political transition as an example, even in the very limited scientific research results related to the political transition in Central Asia, the understanding of some major issues is often rather general. For example, in the description of the path dependence or model of the political system transformation of Central Asian countries, the conclusion drawn is relatively broad: either presidential centralism or authoritarianism. In fact, Kyrgyzstan cannot be compared with its neighbors Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan in terms of authoritarian rule.