Environmental Laws and Regulations in the Development of Energy Resources in Central Asia: System, Characteristics and State Governance中亚国家能源资源开发中的环保法规：体系、特征及国家治理
Environmental laws in Central Asian countries are a complete system, which follow the general principles of their constitutions on ecology and environmental protection and consist of the “Ecology and Environmental Law,” “Resources Utilization Law,, “Petroleum Law” and other special laws and regulations. Among them, the “Ecology and Environmental Law” has a special status in the legal system of environmental protection and plays a normative role in the fields of economic production and ecological issues. Central Asian countries are obviously different in terms of energy structure. For example, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan are rich in oil and gas resources. Regarding energy development and international energy cooperation, they pay more attention to environmental protection and pollution control related to the resource development of oil and gas as well as the specified responsibilities of relevant agents. From the perspective of state governance, permit system, environmental evaluation system, inspection systems, fines, and networked government management are the main governance models commonly adopted by Central Asian countries. From the perspective of implementing efficiency, the situation is also different in Central Asian countries. But on the whole, the construction of legal system and norms of law enforcement in Central Asian countries in the field of ecology and environmental protection still need to be improved.