A Twisted Journey: Central Asia Volume 曲折的历程：中亚卷
The independence of Central Asian countries has created new possibilities for them to independently determine their own development paths. First, as an independent country, they have obtained full jurisdiction over internal affairs, exercised sovereignty internally, and implemented new financial and tax policies and independent tariff policies. With the acquisition of independent status, most countries have initiated economic transformation with the goal of marketization, changed the ownership structure of state-owned assets, and recognized various forms of ownership relationships. Second, as independent states, they have obtained the status of the main body of international law, and can independently determine foreign policies and develop foreign economic cooperation. Third, the identities of residents in these countries began to change, and the people changed from being citizens of the Soviet Union to citizens of independent countries. With the relaxation of social control, a large number of social groups have emerged in most countries and political pluralism has emerged. Fourth, most political parties and social movements have expressed their loyalty to democratic principles. However, due to the small scale of the newly emerging political parties, they cannot propose a reform plan different from that of the current regime. Except for a few political parties, most political parties are involved in and outside the parliament and in social and political life. Not positive enough. As a multi-ethnic country, the national attributes of political parties and their inclination in national identity are key indicators of political party strength and influence. In addition, the multi-party system promotes freedom of speech and the opening of the information space, enabling new independent news media to emerge, competing with each other, and promoting social progress. Fifth, a new national management system has emerged. From 1992 to 1995, the result of the establishment of the state power system in the Central Asian countries was the consolidation of the constitutional system. The constitutions of various countries clearly stipulate that state power is based on the principles of the supremacy of the law, the secular state and the separation of powers. The government is responsible to the people and performs functions for the interests of the people. The new political structure of Central Asian countries can be characterized by 1. extreme presidential power, 2. limited parliamental powers, 3. judiciary is not truly independent.