A Study on Rong Hepeng’s four exploration activities in Pamirs 荣赫鹏在帕米尔的四次探查活动考述
In the late 19th century, with the intensification of the “Great Game” between Britain and Russia in Central Asia, the Pamirs became the coveted object of the two countries. During this period, Britain and Russia sent small “exploration teams” to the Pamirs to conduct geographic surveys and intelligence collection for the division of political spheres of influence. British India’s “advanced policy school” representative Rong Hepeng’s “exploration activities” from 1887 to 1891 directly influenced British India to send troops to Kanjuti and privately divide the Pamirs, which is a clear proof of the British invasion of Xinjiang. Based on the rich first-hand historical materials, this paper examines and determines the four routes of Rong Hepeng, and believes that his exploration activities are aggressive, military, political and geographical.